Examining Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in Higher Education: A Study of Existence in West Kalimantan

  • Arianto Arianto Politeknik Negeri Pontianak
  • Tashadi Tarmizi Politeknik Negeri Pontianak
  • Zulfikar Hanafi University of Leicester
  • Wahyudi Wahyudi Politeknik Negeri Pontianak
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Ecosystem, Higher Education


Purpose This research underscores the pivotal role of student awareness and perception in shaping the entrepreneurial ecosystem within higher education institutions. It offers valuable insights into the dynamics of entrepreneurship in educational settings and provides guidance on creating supportive environments that encourage entrepreneurship among students.

Method The data analysis in the research proposal employs a structured approach using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to generate robust results. PLS-SEM is chosen for its suitability with models featuring collinear factors. The analysis consists of two components: the measurement model, assessing relationships between constructs and indicators, and the structural model, examining connections between independent and dependent variables. The analysis includes considerations like internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, collinearity, path coefficient significance, R2 values, effect size, and predictive relevance. Hypotheses are tested using significance testing with t-values and p-values, and additional hypotheses undergo bootstrapping computations of PLS-SEM path coefficients. This holistic approach ensures statistically sound results directly aligned with research objectives, effectively addressing the research question.

Result This research explores the factors that contribute to the entrepreneurial ecosystem within higher education institutions, focusing on West Kalimantan. It reveals that student awareness and perception of entrepreneurship significantly impact the growth and sustainability of this ecosystem. The study emphasizes the importance of student-driven efforts in fostering entrepreneurship. Faculty involvement is less significant than student awareness and perception, suggesting a student-centered approach to entrepreneurship education. The availability of resources and support, as well as student participation in collective entrepreneurial activities, also positively impact student awareness and perception of entrepreneurship. Institutions should consider providing these resources and opportunities to foster a more entrepreneurial-friendly environment. However, a counterintuitive discovery emerged regarding asset development strategies' impact on student awareness and perception. The research suggests that an exclusive focus on asset development for startups may not significantly influence student awareness and perception.

Implication The implications of these findings are significant, emphasizing the need for initiatives aimed at increasing student awareness and positive perceptions of entrepreneurship. Institutions should reevaluate faculty roles and prioritize student-driven endeavors that promote entrepreneurship. A tailored approach to entrepreneurship education and ecosystem development is crucial, considering the unique needs and preferences of students and being adapted to the local context.


Baraldi, E., & Ingemansson Havenvid, M. (2016). Identifying new dimensions of business incubation: A multi-level analysis of Karolinska Institute’s incubation system. Technovation, 50–51, 53–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2015.08.003
Boyer, J., & Kokosy, A. (2022). Technology-push and market-pull strategies: the influence of the innovation ecosystem on companies’ involvement in the Industry 4.0 paradigm. Journal of Risk Finance, 23(5), 461–479. https://doi.org/10.1108/JRF-12-2021-0193
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences–second edition. 12 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Hillsdale, New Jersey, 13.
Cuvero, M., Granados, M. L., Pilkington, A., & Evans, R. (2022). Start-ups’ use of knowledge spillovers for product innovation: the influence of entrepreneurial ecosystems and virtual platforms. R and D Management. https://doi.org/10.1111/radm.12567
Decreton, B., Monteiro, F., Frangos, J. M., & Friedman, L. (2021). Innovation Outposts in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: How to Make Them More Successful. California Management Review, 63(3), 94–117. https://doi.org/10.1177/0008125621996494
Deshpande, A., Guthrie, S., & Europe, R. (2019). Entrepreneurial-university ecosystem: An overview of key concepts. www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/WR1304.html
Fubah, C. N., & Moos, M. N. (2021). RELEVANT THEORIES IN ENTREPRENEURIAL ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH: AN OVERVIEW. Article in Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/355171211
Granstrand, O., & Holgersson, M. (2020). Innovation ecosystems: A conceptual review and a new definition. In Technovation (Vols. 90–91). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2019.102098
Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research. European business review.
Hermanto, B., & Suryanto, S. E. (2017). Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Policy in Indonesia. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 8(1), 110–115. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2017.v8n1p110
isenberg, D. (2014). What an Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Actually Is. Harvard Business Review.
Jiang, H., Yang, J., & Liu, W. (2022). Innovation ecosystem stability and enterprise innovation performance: the mediating effect of knowledge acquisition. Journal of Knowledge Management, 26(11), 378–400. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-04-2022-0275
Malecki, E. J. (2018). Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial ecosystems. Geography Compass, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12359
Marcon, A., & Ribeiro, J. L. D. (2021). How do startups manage external resources in innovation ecosystems? A resource perspective of startups’ lifecycle. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2021.120965
Nielsen, K. (2015). Human capital and new venture performance: the industry choice and performance of academic entrepreneurs. Journal of Technology Transfer, 40(3), 453–474. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-014-9345-z
Novela, S., Syarief, R., Fahmi, I., & Arkeman, Y. (2021). Creating a university-based entrepreneurial ecosystem in Indonesia. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 10(1), 174–183. https://doi.org/10.36941/ajis-2021-0015
Salamzadeh, A., & Kawamorita, H. (2015). Startup Companies: Life Cycle and Challenges Digital Leadership View project Social Entrepreneurship in the Middle Eastern Countries View project. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3624.8167
Shwetzer, C., Maritz, A., & Nguyen, Q. (2019). Entrepreneurial ecosystems: a holistic and dynamic approach. Journal of Industry-University Collaboration, 1(2), 79–95. https://doi.org/10.1108/jiuc-03-2019-0007
Thomas, E., Faccin, K., & Asheim, B. T. (2021). Universities as orchestrators of the development of regional innovation ecosystems in emerging economies. Growth and Change, 52(2), 770–789. https://doi.org/10.1111/grow.12442
Uhm, C. H., Sung, C. S., & Park, J. Y. (2018). Understanding the accelerator from resources-based perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 12(3), 258–278. https://doi.org/10.1108/apjie-01-2018-0001
van Weele, M., van Rijnsoever, F. J., & Nauta, F. (2017). You can’t always get what you want: How entrepreneur’s perceived resource needs affect the incubator’s assertiveness. Technovation, 59, 18–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2016.08.004
Vaz, R., Teixeira, S. F., & de Carvalho, J. V. (2022). Comfortable but Not Brilliant: Exploring the Incubation Experience of Founders of Technology-Based Startups. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(23). https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315864
Wang, Z., He, Q., Xia, S., Sarpong, D., Xiong, A., & Maas, G. (2020). Capacities of business incubator and regional innovation performance. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120125
Xiao, L. (2018). Entrepreneurial Dynamics and Institutional Changes. Journal of Evolutionary Studies in Business-JESB, 1. https://doi.org/10.1344/jesb2018.1.j035